Dr. AIX's POSTS — 26 March 2015


Getting to the Bottom End of the LFE

The ITU specification for using the LFE (Low Frequency Effects or Low Frequency Enhancement) is contained in Annex 7 of the document. This is Bible for both equipment manufacturers, content producers (both movies and music), and facilities. I read it with interest because it appears that my production process has wrongly ignored the attenuation of the LFE channel. I don’t lower the LFE channel by the 10 dB recommended for DVD-Video titles. Have I screwed things up for all of my customers?

Here’s the opening paragraph of Annex 7 “Low frequency effect channel (LFE)”:

“The purpose of this optional channel is to enable delivery of higher levels of low frequency energy, that can be reproduced by those users that are equipped with sufficient low frequency reproduction capability to produce the high level low frequency effects. It was originally devised by the film industry for the digital sound systems.”

The idea is that movies have these low frequency sound effects that shouldn’t burden the main speakers. The document specifically states, “the LFE channel is an option, at the receiver, and thus should only carry the additional enhancement information”.

There you have it…for movies. The LFE channel handles frequencies in the range 20-120 Hz. But how are things different for music programs?

It turns out that there is another ITU recommendation ITU-R BR. 1384 that “specifies that the LFE channel recorded with a level offset of -10 dB for the recording and exchange of multichannel sound program material, and this offset is compensated for in the reproduction system”. This harks back to the question originally posed by one of my readers. He was correct that hardware manufacturers routinely reproduced the LFE channel with a positive offset gain of 10 dB relative to the main channels on playback.

The ITU specification inserts a NOTE at this point in the document. It turns out that the whole 10 dB offset thing applies only to the DVD-Video format. The LFE channel is or should be handled differently by makers of AVRs for DVD-Audio discs and SACDs. Here’s the NOTE:

The film industry encodes the LFE channel such that a positive gain of 10 dB is required on reproduction and the reproduction level for DVD-Video is set to a positive gain of 10 dB relative tot eh main channels. However, the music industry, such a DVD-Audio or Super Audio CD, is currently coding the LFE channel such that zero offset gain is required on reproduction.

From this description, it appears that the manufacturers of AV Receivers should treat the LFE channel for music productions differently. They should have included a setting that would dictate whether the offset is applied or not. Instead, it seems virtually all AVRs boost the LFE channel regardless of whether the bass management system is active or not.

Finally, the ITU document talks about the fact that most domestic systems and the content delivered through them don’t require heavy handed “Low Frequency Effects”. In fact, they change the meaning of the LFE acronym to “low frequency enhancement” to soften the requirement.

“The LFE channel must therefore be considered as, at most, an enhancement, and definitely not as an essential part of the mix. If LFE use is thought advantageous in particular circumstances then it should only be used when there is a full understanding of the way the whole system of LFE, stereo down mix, bass management, and subwoofers is intended to work.

This last bit of information makes me quite happy. I agree that the LFE material on my productions is an “enhancement”. I don’t put much down in the “boom” channel but it is not silent either.

The next section of the ITU-R BS. 775-3 document is titled, “ Usage of the low frequency effects channel (LFE). I’ll parse that section in a future post.

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About Author


Mark Waldrep, aka Dr. AIX, has been producing and engineering music for over 40 years. He learned electronics as a teenager from his HAM radio father while learning to play the guitar. Mark received the first doctorate in music composition from UCLA in 1986 for a "binaural" electronic music composition. Other advanced degrees include an MS in computer science, an MFA/MA in music, BM in music and a BA in art. As an engineer and producer, Mark has worked on projects for the Rolling Stones, 311, Tool, KISS, Blink 182, Blues Traveler, Britney Spears, the San Francisco Symphony, The Dover Quartet, Willie Nelson, Paul Williams, The Allman Brothers, Bad Company and many more. Dr. Waldrep has been an innovator when it comes to multimedia and music. He created the first enhanced CDs in the 90s, the first DVD-Videos released in the U.S., the first web-connected DVD, the first DVD-Audio title, the first music Blu-ray disc and the first 3D Music Album. Additionally, he launched the first High Definition Music Download site in 2007 called iTrax.com. A frequency speaker at audio events, author of numerous articles, Dr. Waldrep is currently writing a book on the production and reproduction of high-end music called, "High-End Audio: A Practical Guide to Production and Playback". The book should be completed in the fall of 2013.

(3) Readers Comments

  1. Dang Mark I’m glad you seem to be following all this cause I’m completely confused. LOL
    Talking about the .1 channel as a LFE or BOOM channel seems to completely get out of sync with the fact that many if not most average system is using a AVR with a speaker system that uses smaller satellite speakers and a sub-woofer which as I understand it, really is different from a true .1 LFE speaker used with larger near full range main speaker system more like you have with the B&Ws in you studio.
    For myself I may pull out some of my old calibration discs and see where my sub is as setup by the AVR auto, but all I have any more will be two channel sweep recordings.
    I do know that whether listening to DTS blu rays movies, 5.1 concert blu rays or surround faked stereo CD’s the tonal balance of my system sounds reasonably right. I know if my sub was either at + or – 10 db from my satellites that would be something that would jump out at me.
    Sounds to me like there have been so many variables thrown into the mix over that last 10 years that it’s going to be hard for both the hardware manufacturers and music developers like yourself to be sure things are going to come out right in all cases.
    Or maybe I’m just lost in the tech and don’t really understand whats going on, quite possible.

    • In my post on the ITU specs for LFE channels…they describe them as an enhancement when used at home. I believe the AVR makers have punted the ball with regards to LFE and music.

      • I’m also forgetting something. During the AVR MCACC setup it detects and also allows manual selection of whether the satellites are large or small.
        I’m guessing that if they are set to small, the subs handle everything below the desired crossover frequency, plus add in anything existing in the LFE channel and hopefully adjust the ITU boost/cut according to the flag set on the media.
        If speakers are Large they would only receive the .1 LFE info, again using the ITU flag to set for correct source.
        I THINK. LOL

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