Binaural Audio

Yesterday was the first day of the Capitol AudioFest here in Washington DC. Gary Gill has put on a small but well-organized show for four years in the DC area and this is my second year participating and presenting. I hauled two 50-pound hard shell Samsonite suitcases loaded with playback equipment (an Oppo BDP-95, a Smyth Room Realiser, Benchmark DAC1, video monitor and a couple pairs of headphones) and AIX Records products (DVDs and Blu-rays) from the west coast to a sales table on the fourth floor this year. The Magnolia Room is also populated by other vendors hoping to interest attendees with their products. It’s an interesting bunch, there’s Bob (from Bob’s Devices) who offers step up transformers for moving coil cartridges, Misha from Mytek and his amazing DACs, a couple of guys selling home automation equipment and Chris (from Cash for, my neighbor in the middle of the room, offering bin after bin of vinyl LPs.

Chris has a large wire frame display that features a number of his albums. It happens to be open on the back and I noticed a Lou Reed album called “Take No Prisoners” that had the designation “binaural” printed on the back (Lou Reed actually released 3 binaural recordings). I asked Chris if he knew anything about the record and he responded that he didn’t. In fact, he didn’t realize it was recorded using a binaural head. He admitted that he didn’t even know what binaural means. I thought today would be a good time to introduce “Fritz” to him and to the readers of this post.

Binaural recordings are done using a “dummy” head. Neumann, a very well known German maker of high quality microphones makes one affectionately known as “Fritz”. The official model number is the KU-81 or the updated model the KU-100. It comes in silver metal container about the size of a human head because it is solid rubber stylized human head with well articulated soft rubber pinna (or outer ears) and high quality microphones inside the head where eardrums would normally be.

The concept is that a recording made using microphones located inside a physical head with real looking ears will result in a recording that sounds 3-dimensional. And it works as long as you listen back to a binaural recording through a set of headphones. Whatever Fritz’s heard through his left ear has to be delivered to the listener’s left ear and the likewise for the right. Binaural recordings don’t work through loudspeakers (although Chesky claims that he has collaborated with a researcher at Princeton to perfect binaural through speakers…I’ve heard it and it didn’t work for me).

In the mid 80s I recorded a bunch of source material for my dissertation composition using a Fritz binaural head and my stereo Nagra IV-S portable analog tape machine. The concept for the piece was transmigration or the journey from one spiritual or physical place to another. The piece used subterranean sounds, ground level sounds and ultimately sounds recorded from a hot air balloon ride. Fritz and I spent a lovely week together running around California trying to find interesting sound environments. I’ll share some of those source recordings when I get back to Los Angeles.

That Lou Reed would use this technology for a commercial record release was compelling and highly unusual. Chris pulled it out and walked over to Bob’s area and played it through a great set of phones to get the full effect. Both Bob and Chris reported back that it was somewhat disturbing to have Lou speaking to them that close to their ears…kinda creepy was the general sentiment. And besides Bob never liked Lou in plain old stereo!


Mark Waldrep, aka Dr. AIX, has been producing and engineering music for over 40 years. He learned electronics as a teenager from his HAM radio father while learning to play the guitar. Mark received the first doctorate in music composition from UCLA in 1986 for a "binaural" electronic music composition. Other advanced degrees include an MS in computer science, an MFA/MA in music, BM in music and a BA in art. As an engineer and producer, Mark has worked on projects for the Rolling Stones, 311, Tool, KISS, Blink 182, Blues Traveler, Britney Spears, the San Francisco Symphony, The Dover Quartet, Willie Nelson, Paul Williams, The Allman Brothers, Bad Company and many more. Dr. Waldrep has been an innovator when it comes to multimedia and music. He created the first enhanced CDs in the 90s, the first DVD-Videos released in the U.S., the first web-connected DVD, the first DVD-Audio title, the first music Blu-ray disc and the first 3D Music Album. Additionally, he launched the first High Definition Music Download site in 2007 called A frequency speaker at audio events, author of numerous articles, Dr. Waldrep is currently writing a book on the production and reproduction of high-end music called, "High-End Audio: A Practical Guide to Production and Playback". The book should be completed in the fall of 2013.

One thought on “Binaural Audio

  • July 29, 2013 at 7:45 am

    Hi Mark,

    I really enjoyed talking with you at the Capitol AudioFest.

    I too listened for a while in the United Room. A reel to reel was also present in the Mapleshade room. I was somewhat disappointed in how they sounded. They are an improvement over LPs at what they do, but still lack some of the high frequency sparkle and low frequency extension of the best digital– and given what these devices cost, that is what they should be compared to. I felt that in both rooms, the MBL speakers were struggling to do their job.

    I think I understand the reel to reel nostalgia phenomenon. I am next anticipating an audiophile resurgence in 78s or Edisonograph cylinders. I am also attempting to corner the market for Close ‘n Plays.

    The SVS presentation was at least carrying the torch for multichannel, even if they were determined to deafen everyone.


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